What Is A Note Receivable?

A note receivable is often formed when a business, usually a bank, makes a loan to another business. A note will often be for less than a year, but some can be well in excess of this time frame. Recognize notes receivable income as interest income on the income statement. Thus, when payment is made the amounts effect the balance sheet as well as the income statement. You should classify a note receivable in the balance sheet as a current asset if it is due within 12 months or as non-current (i.e., long-term) if it is due in more than 12 months. In this example, Company A records a notes receivable entry on its balance sheet, while Company B records a notes payable entry on its balance sheet. The principal value is $300,000, $100,000 of which is to be paid monthly.

What are three differences between accounts receivable and notes receivable?

Accounts Receivable vs Notes Receivable

Notes receivable is a written promise by a supplier agreeing to pay a sum of money in the future. Accounts receivable is a short term asset. Notes receivable may be short term or long term. Accounts receivable does not involve a legally binding document.

An illiquid company faces an imminent insolvency if immediate measures aren’t taken against the liquidity crisis. Both notes receivable and accounts receivable must be effectively managed to reduce the cash collection period, improve accounts receivable turnover ratio and, hence, the cash flow of the company. The procedure can be made easier and more effective by offering appealing incentives to debtors and issuers of notes receivable. Remember from earlier in the chapter, a note is an unconditional written promise by a borrower to pay a definite sum of money to the lender on demand or on a specific date. A customer may give a note to a business for an amount due on an account receivable or for the sale of a large item such as a refrigerator. Also, a business may give a note to a supplier in exchange for merchandise to sell or to a bank or an individual for a loan. Thus, a company may have notes receivable or notes payable arising from transactions with customers, suppliers, banks, or individuals.

Faqs About Accounts Receivable And Notes Receivable

When the maker of a promissory note fails to pay, the note is said to be dishonored. Assuming D. Brown dishonors the note but payment is expected, the company records the event by debiting accounts receivable from D. Brown for $2,625, crediting notes receivable for $2,500, and crediting interest revenue for $125. Maintaining liquidity is a vital part of running a business and both the assets are equally important in terms of managing the working capital and liquidity position of the company.

Alternatively, the note may state that the total amount of interest due is to be paid along with the third and final principal payment of $100,000. On 1 May 20X4, PQR, Inc. lent $2 million to ABC, LLC for 2 years against a documented promissory note. DEF, Inc., another client of PQR, Inc. issued a 2-month promissory note against their outstanding balance of $3 million on 1 November 20X4. Note receivable from ABC LLC carried 5% simple interest rate payable annually while the one from DEF Inc. carried 8% interest compounded monthly. Accounts payable is similar to accounts receivable, but instead of money to be received, it’s money owed.

Difference Between Notes Receivable And Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable is an asset account on the balance sheet that represents money due to a company in the short term. At the beginning of every accounting period, allowance for doubtful accounts account is credited with an expected or estimated amount of uncollectibles.

Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master’s in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Notes receivable is a negotiable instrument and can be transferred further to clear dues. It needs to be highlighted, though, that the transferability doesn’t affect the ownership of a notes receivable since each bearer has exactly the same claim over it as the original lender had.

”One year after date, I promise to pay…” When the maturity is expressed in years, the note matures on the same day of the same month as the date of the note in the year of maturity. Note that in this calculation we expressed the time period as a fraction of a 360-day year because the interest rate is an annual rate and the note life was days. Frequency of a year is the amount of time for the note and can be either days or months.

Where Do I Find A Company’s Accounts Receivable?

Peggy James is a CPA with over 9 years of experience in accounting and finance, including corporate, nonprofit, and personal finance environments. She most recently worked at Duke University and is the owner of Peggy James, CPA, PLLC, serving small businesses, nonprofits, solopreneurs, freelancers, and individuals. This set of journal entries happen every year until the note is completely paid off. Is the amount of cash deposited by Square Capital in its customers’ checking accounts classified as ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE or NOTES RECEIVABLE by Square Capital? Square has recently gotten into lending money to its customers through its Square Capital program. According to Business Insider , Square has paid out over $100 million in small business financing over the past year. Notes payable are written agreements in which one party agrees to pay the other party a certain amount of cash.

At the beginning of each month, Tim makes the $2,000 loan payment and debits the loan account for $1,500, debits interest expense for $500, and credits cash for $2,000. It debits cash for $2,000 and credits notes receivable for $1,500 and interest income for $500. If interest on a bad debt had previously been accrued, then a correcting entry is needed to remove the accrued interest from interest revenue and interest receivable .


In case, a debtor goes bankrupt and the receivable amount is proved to be uncollectible, it’s referred to as a bad debt or uncollectible account. The amount of bad debt or uncollectible account is debited to the allowance for doubtful accounts account. The interest earned on a note receivable is recorded as interest income on the income statement. The note has now been completely paid off, and ABC has recorded a total of $246 in interest income over a three-month period.

Some companies have both notes receivable and notes payable sections within their financial statements. While notes receivable is the amounts that customers owe a business, notes payable is the amount of money that a business owes to another company, usually a supplier or vendor. Notes receivable is another line item on the balance sheet to record the amount a customer or client owes that the business has yet to receive. You record these debts as notes receivable if there is a promissory note attached to the debt. This projected income is still considered an asset as long as you expect to receive the debt within the next year. Notes receivable usually arise when accounts receivable are converted to notes receivable when the customer wants to extend the date of payment and in return agrees to pay interest. Notes receivable also arise when a business lends an amount to another party against a documented promise to pay it back.

The balance of notes receivable account is debit in nature and is therefore reported as an asset on the statement of financial position . In case, it has been issued for a period of less than twelve months, the notes receivable is reported as a current asset. Companies record accounts receivable as assets on their balance sheets since there is a legal obligation for the customer to pay the debt. Furthermore, accounts receivable are current assets, meaning the account balance is due from the debtor in one year or less. If a company has receivables, this means it has made a sale on credit but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Essentially, the company has accepted a short-term IOU from its client.

accounts and notes receivable

The holder is the payee, or another person who legally acquired the note from the payee. A company’s auditors will examine the classification of notes receivable from the most conservative perspective, and so will insist on their classification as short-term if there are reasonable grounds for doing so. For example, the maker owes $200,000 to the payee at a 10% interest rate, and pays no interest during the first year.

Time Period:

A company lends one of its important suppliers $10,000 and the supplier gives the company a written promissory note to repay the amount in six months along with interest at 8% per year. The company will debit its current asset account Notes Receivable for the principal amount of $10,000. Accounts receivable is a line item, or group of line items, that appear as assets on a balance sheet. The purpose of accounts receivable is to monitor the money a customer or client owes to the business that the company has yet to receive.

  • When a note’s maker pays according to the terms specified on the note, the note is said to be honored.
  • Peggy James is a CPA with over 9 years of experience in accounting and finance, including corporate, nonprofit, and personal finance environments.
  • Frequency of a year is the amount of time for the note and can be either days or months.
  • Interest receivable account is credited where the note carries simple interest.
  • Square, the mobile payments company, allows small businesses to take credit cards by swiping customer credit cards using a small square device attached to the audio jack found on mobile devices.
  • However, for long-term notes receivable, interest that remains unpaid is typically added to the principal amount and compounded for interest that’s carried over from one year to the next.

Usually, a time period of thirty to ninety days is provided to clear the debt. According to the accounting principles, a contra accounts receivable account known as “allowance for doubtful accounts account” is maintained in the books of business. This account is credit in nature (i.e., has normally a credit balance) and reduces the accounts receivable value reported on the balance sheet. A large accounts receivable balance can be positive or negative depending on business operations and the ability of the individuals or companies that owe money to the organization to pay their debt. A large accounts receivable balance can mean that the company sells a fair amount of products and services; otherwise, the balance may not exist in the first place unless the business is a cash-only one. Bank ($3,000,000+$20,000+$20,133)3,040,133 Notes receivable3,040,133As at 31 December, the note receivable from ABC is classified as a non-current asset because it is due after 12 months from 31 December. Interest receivable on the note as a 31 December is reported as current asset because it is to be received at the end of April 20X5.

Examples Of Notes Receivable

Accounts receivable also known as debtors is the value of sales that has been made but hasn’t been paid for yet i.e. goods or services that have been bought by customers on credit. It is the amount owed to the company by its clients against the sale of goods and services. Accounts receivable is recorded in the general ledger, and is debited against a credit on the sales account. Accounts receivable is a current asset since the amount is mostly payable within twelve months of issuance of invoice.

  • Adjusting entries for accumulated interest must be made on the date the accounting period ends.
  • Accounts receivable is a current asset since the amount is mostly payable within twelve months of issuance of invoice.
  • The more an accounts receivable ages, the more likely that a company will either need to write off the debts or convert them to a notes receivable with an attached promissory note to help support the customer’s ability to pay.
  • Often, a business will allow customers to convert their overdue accounts (the business’ accounts receivable) into notes receivable.
  • Notes receivable usually arise when accounts receivable are converted to notes receivable when the customer wants to extend the date of payment and in return agrees to pay interest.
  • Thus, the payee of the note should debit Accounts Receivable for the maturity value of the note and credit Notes Receivable for the note’s face value and Interest Revenue for the interest.
  • The percentage that Square charges stays constant until the loan is paid off fully.

For example, if a business holds a two-year, 10 percent, $5,000 note, the note accrues $500 over the first year. Under the same example, the total principal and interest for the first year equals $5,500 when compounded, and the total accrued interest for the second year when compounded equals $550. On the other hand, money owed by customers for purchasing goods or services on credit is known as accounts receivable. Company A sells machinery to Company B for $300,000, with payment due within 30 days.

The Importance Of Analyzing Accounts Receivable

A company that frequently exchanges goods or services for notes would probably include a debit column for notes receivable in the sales journal so that such transactions would not need to be recorded in the general journal. If the amount of notes receivable is significant, a company should establish a separate allowance for bad debts account for notes receivable. The note receivable is a formal promissory note issued by the maker or issuer to the payee.

The amount debited to interest receivable represent simple interest earned on note receivable from ABC. A receivable is created any time money is owed to a firm for services rendered or products provided that have not yet been paid. This can be from a sale to a customer on store credit, or a subscription or installment payment that is due after goods or services have been received.

What Are Notes Receivable?

“On July 18, 2015, I promise to pay…” When the maturity date is designated, computing the maturity date is not necessary. At the end of the three months, the note, with interest, is completely paid off.

accounts and notes receivable

Since notes receivable have a longer duration than accounts receivable, they usually require the maker to pay interest in addition to the principle, at the maturity of the note. Interest receivable is recognized on the balance sheet in addition to the face value of notes receivable.

This periodical addition to the allowance for doubtful accounts account is reported as revenue expense on the income statement of concerned period. Debtors are payable to the company within the next thirty to ninety days of the issuance of invoice which is why it is classified as a current asset on the statement of financial position.

When a customer does not pay an account receivable that is due, the company may insist that the customer gives a note in place of the account receivable. This action allows the customer more time to pay the balance due, and the company earns interest on the balance until paid. Also, the company may be able to sell the note to a bank or other financial institution. For example, a company that provides paper and related products, like notepads, portfolios and pens, to a law firm may have an arrangement with the firm to deliver products without immediate payment and later send an invoice. If one order totals $500, the company would record this figure under accounts receivable because the law firm owes this money and hasn’t paid it to the business. Once the business delivers the products to the law firm, it’ll also record the $500 as income.

Customers frequently sign promissory notes to settle overdue accounts receivable balances. Brown signs a six‐month, 10%, $2,500 promissory note after falling 90 days past due on her account, the business records the event by debiting notes receivable for $2,500 and crediting accounts receivable from D. Notice that the entry does not include interest revenue, which is not recorded until it is earned. A note receivable is usually received in result of granting a loan to someone or from a debtor who has previously bought some goods or services on credit and has not yet made the payment. An organization may receive notes receivable from a number of individuals and organizations during the course of its business. These notes are accounted for in a general ledger account known as notes receivable account. The notes receivable usually earn interest income for their holders or payees which is recorded in interest on notes payable account maintained in the general ledger.